The endoscopy procedure is the examination of the internal organs that make up the digestive system by mouth without the need for surgical intervention. The main organs examined in the endoscopy procedure are oesophagus, stomach and duodenum (large) intestine.

There is a camera at the end of the endoscopy device. It is about one meter long and has a flexible structure. Thanks to the camera located at the end of the endoscopy device, it is possible to diagnose diseases as well as biopsy and some treatments with the apparatus attached to the end of the endoscope.

When should endoscopy be done?

Endoscopy is applied in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds, polyps or tumours in the oesophagus, stomach or large intestine. Apart from that, it is also a procedure for biopsy.

Endoscopy diagnosis may be needed because of many complaints.

  • Chronic abdominal pain
  • Reflux
  • Stomach ulcer
  • Constant nausea
  • Bad breath
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Oesophageal ulcers
  • Chronic diarrhoea or constipation
  • Infections
  • Tumours
  • Polyps
  • Gallstones
  • Abnormal weight loss
  • Digestive system disorders
Apart from these conditions, tissue samples can be taken for biopsy in the endoscopy procedure when the gastroenterology doctor deems necessary.
It is also used for treatment with specialized apparatuses attached to the end of the endoscopy device.
  • Opening the narrowing of the oesophagus
  • In polyp removal
  • Removal of the gallbladder
  • Removing fluid buildup

How to prepare before the endoscopy procedure?

There are certain preparations that the patient should make before the endoscopy procedure. These are explained to you by your doctor before the procedure.

The patient who will undergo endoscopy should not eat or drink from the previous night. If the patient’s stomach or large intestine is to be examined by endoscopy, the procedure must be fasted. Otherwise, there may be difficulties in making the desired clarity and definitive diagnosis in the procedure.

How is the endoscopy procedure performed?

Throat Numbing

Before starting the procedure, the back parts of the mouth and throat are numbed with a local anaesthetic spray. The spray is applied by spraying this area. Then the patient is placed on his left side.


The patient is put to sleep under close follow-up with intravenous sedoanalgesia drugs. The patient is anaesthetized with sedoanalgesia and the partial oxygen pressure is monitored with a finger pulse oximeter. At the same time, the patient’s heart rhythm is also monitored on the monitor. A diagnostic endoscopy procedure takes between 2 and 4 minutes.

Actions Taken During the Transaction

During endoscopy procedures, biopsy pieces are taken for pathological examination with a small device called biopsy forceps, which is passed through the endoscopy canal from the body part, which we generally call the corpus, and from the regions called Antrum near the exit of the stomach. The presence of helicobacter pylori bacteria on the surface of the stomach, the severity of gastritis, and the presence of intestinal metaplasia are generally evaluated by examining the pieces taken.

The first part of the duodenum, the area called the duodenum, is called the bulbus. Bulbus is the most common area of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In patients with active bleeding, their bleeding can be stopped during endoscopy with a method called sclerotherapy. Sclerotherapy procedure is performed by injecting caustic sclerosing solution around and in the middle of the bleeding area through the sclerotherapy needle passed through the canal cavity of the device.

Many more therapeutic procedures can be easily performed during the gastroscopy procedure. The removal of polyps in the stomach, the breaking down of petrified foods called bezoars formed in the stomach over time, the removal of accidentally swallowed foreign substances (such as pins, batteries) are examples.

Are there risks to the endoscopy procedure?

Endoscopy procedure is a very risk-free procedure. Endoscopy is essentially the examination of the patient’s digestive system with a specialized device for this task. Because the endoscope device has a very flexible and sensitive structure, it does not harm the patient. Therefore, the risk of complications that may occur during the procedure is very low.

However, in some patients, endoscopy side effects can be seen as a sore throat that may last for a few days or weakness due to anaesthesia. Like any medical procedure, endoscopy has risks, albeit low.

  • Heartburn
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Situations such as difficulty breathing.
  • If these findings occur, you should consult your doctor.

What should be considered after an endoscopy?

The recovery time of the patient may vary depending on the drugs given for sedoanalgesia. Recovery time can take up to 30 to 60 minutes with some sedation medications. For some, the recovery will be much faster. However, in any case, these patients are strongly advised not to drive during the day, not to do signed jobs or to organize jobs that require responsibility.

There may be mild disturbing symptoms after the procedure, but they will disappear in a short time.

  • Swelling
  • Throat ache
  • Cramp

What are the types of endoscopy ?

Endoscopy is the examination of cavities in the body by seeing them with different devices. Although it is understood that when endoscopy is called in public, it is actually a common name.
– Gastroscopy
Gastroscopy, the videoendoscopic device first inside the mouth, then the esophagus (esophagus), then inside the stomach, and finally 12. The first and second part of the duodenum also called the finger intestine, is called the examination by seeing with the eye.
Endoscopic examination of the large intestine is called
– Bronchoscopy
Endoscopic examination of the bronchi of the lung is called
Endoscopic examination of joint cavities is called
– Hysteroscopy
Endoscopic examination of the stomach is called
– Laparoscopy
Endoscopic examination of the stomach is called
Endoscopic devices can be rigid, rigid structure, as well as flexible curling style for the purpose, can be produced. The devices used in gastroenterology are flexible video endoscopes that can be curled. Video endoscopes, in general, contain a tunnel-shaped space at the end of the flexible hose where interventional procedures such as video camera, light source, air duct, water duct, a biopsy will be performed. From this space, they can also be removed by aspirating fluids in the stomach and intestines, which distort the image during the process.

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